A reduced appetite makes a person feel hungry less often, eat less than usual, or feel full even after eating a little. A number of things can be the cause, ranging from psychological factors, side effects of drugs, to certain diseases.
Reduced appetite is generally caused by psychological factors, such as stress or depression. When stressed, the body signals as if it is in danger. The brain then releases the hormone adrenaline which makes the heart beat faster and digestion slows down. This is what makes your appetite decrease.
Causes of Decreased Appetite
However, decreased appetite is not only motivated by psychological factors. A reduced appetite accompanied by other symptoms can be a sign that the body is suffering from a disease. The following is a list of diseases that are often associated with reduced appetite:
1. Kidney failure
Patients with acute and chronic kidney failure may experience impaired filtering of toxic substances in the body, reduced red blood cell production, electrolyte disturbances, and high blood pressure. Patients with kidney failure often lose their appetite or find the taste of food that is usually eaten different.
In addition, one of the causes of decreased appetite in people with kidney failure is nausea. Nausea arises from a buildup of toxins in the blood (uremia), because the kidneys can’t work properly.
2. Thyroid disorders
Thyroid disorders, such as hypothyroidism, can also cause decreased appetite. This is thought to be because thyroid disorders can affect the taste sensation on the tongue when eating, and interfere with the work of the brain that regulates appetite.
Decreased appetite in people with AIDS occurs because they are prone to infections, including infections of the gastrointestinal tract.
This condition is characterized by symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. As the disease progresses, people with AIDS can also develop yeast infections or mouth sores that interfere with the eating process.
According to a study, decreased appetite in people with HIV / AIDS is also associated with hormonal disorders, chronic inflammation in the body due to infection, side effects of HIV treatment, and brain disorders that lead to dementia.
Many cancer sufferers have decreased appetite. The cause can be cancer itself, it could also be a side effect of cancer treatment which can affect the sense of taste and the desire to eat.
In addition, cancer sufferers also often experience digestive problems, such as nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea. This condition also causes reduced appetite in people with cancer.
5. Heart failure
Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood to meet the needs of the body’s organs optimally.
The sufferer will experience shortness of breath and swelling in the feet and legs due to fluid buildup. If this fluid buildup occurs in the digestive tract, the sufferer will feel bloated and nauseous, so that their appetite decreases.
6. Treatment side effects Certain medications have side effects of nausea and drowsiness. These side effects can make your appetite decrease. Medicines known to cause this side effect include antibiotics, blood pressure-lowering drugs, sleeping pills, codeine cough medicines, diuretics, and anabolic steroids.
7. Tuberculosis (TB)
Leptin is a hormone whose function is to regulate appetite. In one study, it was found that leptin levels in tuberculosis (TB) sufferers decreased due to prolonged inflammation. This condition makes TB sufferers less appetite and lose weight.